Celtic Heritage Society Of The Permian Basin

Celebrating proud celtic heritage throughout West Texas and Eastern New Mexico

7 Celtic Nations – Cornwall

The following is an excerpt from Wikipedia’s article on Cornwall.
Visit http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornwall for the entire article.

Cornwall

Cornwall (, Cornish: Kernow [ˈkɛrnɔʊ]) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain. The furthest south-western point of the island is Land's End; the southernmost point is Lizard Point. Cornwall has a population of 556,000 and covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi). The administrative county is administered by the unitary authority Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall also includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately. The administrative centre of Cornwall, and only city in the county, is Truro.

It is one of the Celtic nations and has a rich cultural heritage. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora. It retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its unique history, and is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was formerly a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy. The Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly and powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland. Cornwall has been a unitary authority since the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving Cornish people recognition as a distinct ethnic group.

First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then Bronze Age peoples, and later (in the Iron Age) by Brythons with strong trade and cultural links to Wales and Brittany. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall and there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had a military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was ruled by Romano-Celtic chieftains of the Cornovii which may have included semi-historical or legendary figures such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae. The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from the Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham and often came into conflict with the expanding kingdom of Wessex. King Athelstan in AD 936 set the boundary between English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages, language and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas.

Historically tin mining was important in the Cornish economy, becoming increasingly significant during the High Middle Ages and expanding greatly during the 19th century when rich copper mines were also in production. In the mid-19th century, however, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important and metal mining had virtually ended by the 1990s. Traditionally, fishing (particularly of pilchards) and agriculture (notably dairy products and vegetables) were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century; however, Cornwall's economy struggled after the decline of the mining and fishing industries. Cornwall is noted for its geology, a large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall. The north coast has many cliffs where exposed geological formations are studied. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, and its very mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, and Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

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